THE INFLUENCE OF CULTURE ON THE VOCABULARY ACQUISITION of CHINESE AND ENGLISH.

Abstract
The vocabulary acquisition is an essential part of the language acquisition. There is tight relationship between culture and language, namely culture shapes language and at the same time language reflects culture. Therefore, the vocabulary acquisition is also influenced by the cultural factors. Learning a foreign language is actually the process of taking in another type of culture. Different countries possess different culture. The paper aims to carry on the comparison of the Chinese vocabulary acquisition of the British and the English vocabulary acquisition of Chinese against cultural backgrounds. In this essay, I am inclined to study the influence of cultural factors on the vocabulary acquisition of Chinese and English .
Key words: vocabulary acquisition, culture,Chinese and English

Introduction
The vocabulary acquisition is an essential part of the language acquisition. Usually, if a person has a more abundant vocabulary , that is to say, his language level is higher than someone whose vocabulary is poor. It is known that cultural factors have a great influence on the language acquisition. There is close relationship between culture and language, namely culture shapes language and at the same time language reflects culture. Therefore, the vocabulary acquisition is also influenced by the cultural factors. The property of language makes language learners not only learn language itself, but also learn the relevant culture. Learning a foreign language is actually the process of taking in another type of culture. Different countries possess different culture. The differences of Chinese culture and English culture make the English learners, especially, Chinese students too confused with the English language. The paper aims to carry on the comparison of the Chinese vocabulary acquisition and the English vocabulary acquisition against cultural backgrounds. In this essay, I am inclined to study the influence of cultural factors on the vocabulary acquisition of chinese and English . In this way, we as Chinese students can acquire more English vocabulary easily. Knowing the influence of cultural factors on the vocabulary acquisition, we can learn English better. What is more, the study can intrigue my interest of learning English.

Chapter One
Vocabulary Acquisition and Second Language Acquisition
1.1 What is Vocabulary Acquisition
Vocabulary Acquisition is a very complicated issue of language. It is an essential part of language acquisition. Vocabulary acquisition concerns how people expand the number of words they understand when learning a new language. This includes both first and second language acquisition. Linguists are agreed that vocabulary acquisition is 100-percent nurture. “Vocabulary is divided into four basic types: listening vocabulary, speaking vocabulary, writing vocabulary and reading vocabulary. Each type has its own conventions and words.” (Sui Hong,2006) Vocabulary acquisition means being familiar with all implicate meanings of a word, knowing how to use it under whatever proper conditions and its areas of collocation, while understanding the relationship between the word and other one within the framework meaning of same vocabulary meaning.
Norbert (2000) studies that The mechanics of vocabulary learning are still something of a mystery, but one thing we can be sure of is that words are not instantaneously acquired, at least not for adult second language learners. Rather, they are gradually learned over a period of time from numerous exposures. This incremental nature of vocabulary acquisition manifests itself in a number of ways. . . . Being able to understand a word is known as receptive knowledge and is normally connected with listening and reading. If we are able to produce a word of our own accord when speaking or writing, then that is considered productive knowledge(passive/active are alternative terms). . . . a person must master in order to know a word.
– the meaning(s) of the word
– the written form of the word
– the spoken form of the word
– the grammatical behavior of the word
– the collations of the word
– the register of the word
– the associations of the word
– the frequency of the word
Ellis (1999) gives a perfect explanation in his paper: There is a quantitative and qualitative dimension to vocabulary acquisition. On the one hand we can ask ‘How many words do learners know?’ while on the other we can en quire ‘What do the learners know about the words they know?’ Norbert(2000) refers to this important distinction as the ‘breadth’ and ‘depth’ of a person’s lexicon. The focus of much vocabulary research has been on ‘breadth,’ possibly because this is easier to measure. Arguably, however, it is more important to investigate how learners’ knowledge of words they already partly know gradually deepens.”

1.2 What is Second Language Acquisition
It is important that a word is understood before it is used. This is important for both first and second language learners.
Learning a second language attempts to create a parallel vocabulary to the first language. In the 19th century and in many parts of the world today, importance is placed upon grammar and structure when learning a new language. The importance of vocabulary acquisition has only more recently been recognized. Another stumbling block in second language acquisitional is the first language. This not only causes confusion in structure, but can also cause confusion in vocabulary(Diana,2003).
Knowing words in a first or second language is vitally important. In a first language, it allows for greater social integration and self-expression. It also gives a favorable interpretation of a person’s status. In a second language, the speaker will be able to communicate basic ideas through vocabulary even if the person does not understand how to create a grammatically-correct sentence(Lanfer,1996).

August, D., & Shamianah, L.(2006) studies that second language acquisition is learning of a nonnative language. The article brings up the idea that three models for second language acquisition. The three most common models are the Universal Grammar Model, the Competition Model, and the Monitor Model. His theory of second language acquisition, suggests that language instruction just slightly above the student’s current level of language proficiency (i.e., comprehensible input) is useful for second language acquisition. Generally, a silent period in the beginning of second language acquisition is natural and desirable until learners feel comfortable expressing themselves. Speaking cannot be taught directly; it is a result of internalizing comprehensible input. For my study, it is too much useful to express the acquisition of second language.
Second language acquisition theory seeks to quantify how and by what processes individuals acquire a second language. The predominant theory of second language acquisition was developed by the University of Southern California’s Steven Ashen. Ashen is a specialist in language development and acquisition, and his influential theory is widely accepted in the language learning community. There are five main components of Ashen’s theory. Each of the components relates to a different aspect of the language learning process. (Ashen,1985)The five components are as follows:
• The Acquisition Learning Hypothesis
• The Monitor Hypothesis
• The Natural Order Hypothesis
• The Input Hypothesis
• The Affective Filter Hypothesis
Based on the theory of the Ashen, I can learn the language learning process more clearly of Chinese and English from Cultural Aspect.

Acknowledgement
In the first place, a special acknowledgement should be shown to my supervisor Professor Sun, who gave me great help in choosing this topic, in developing and deepening the structure and content, in examining and correcting errors, and in preparing me for the presentation of my graduation paper. Thank her very much for all her help and advice.
In addition, I would like to thank all my teachers in my school years for teaching me with hard work and dedication. My sincere gratitude also goes to my friends and classmates who helped a lot in my paper writing. I appreciate all the efforts they made to help me collect data and correct the mistakes in the paper.

Works Cited
August, D., & Shanahan, L. Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language Minority Children and Youth. Washington, DC: National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth (U.S.), 2006.
Coady, James, and Thomas Huckin. Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. London : Cambridge university, 1997.
Sui Hong, Cultural Factors in ESL Vocabulary Acquisition. 2006. 7 June 2013
Gao Li,Cultural Factors in Second language Vocabulary Acquisition. 2010. 7 June 2013
Krashen, S. D. The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. White Plains, NY: Longman, 1985.
Lanfer, B. “Possible Change in Attitude towards Vocabulary Acquisition Research” IRAL 15 (1996) :25-36.
Norbert,Schmitt. Vocabulary in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press, 2000

Diana, Pulido. “The Effect of Cultural Familiarity on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition Thorough Reading” The Reading Matrix 4.2 (2004): 25-45.
—, Modeling the Role of Second Language Proficiency and Topic familiarity in Second Language Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition through Reading. Michigan: University of Michigan, 2003.
Ellis,Rod. “Factors in the Incidental Acquisition of Second Language Vocabulary From Oral Input.” Learning a Second Language Through Interaction, 1999.

Zou Jiahui “Comparison of Metaphor’s Effects on English Vocabulary and that of Chinese” Theoretical Linguistics 2 (2008): 8-22.
Krashen, S. D. The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. White Plains, NY: Longman, 1985.

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